Theory of Life Framework

Life Framework derives from my understanding of Christopher Alexander‘s works and my own long time zen practices. Through life centers and degree of life of the whole, we can apply Life Framework to various complex systems to understand life phenomena better, including organization management, society, learning, education, sports like soccer, and ourselves.

Originally there is only one pitch darkness and stillness. Then there is movement. As it moves faster, it splits into many parts, which we can call life centers as life is born from that splitting. Life centers forming life centers, and they compose and interact. In this life system, absolute and relative are manifested at the same time. Absolute is the absolute stillness. It is the thing that never changes. Relative is the relative dynamic evolving process. This process is the activity of living. Life is moving fast, however, the original complete stillness and equality are always here. So we have the phenomena of life, in which equality is manifested as diversity, perfection is manifested as limitation, absolute is manifested as relative. The same, impermanence is the only way for permanence to manifest itself and also have life. Or we can say heaven on earth, life manifests different forms. So even we are separate as life centers, we are not separated.

Play is center interacting with centers. A moving system relies on playing to keep its centers together. As life evolves, feel and consciousness are developed to sense the fun of playing. We can also sense the absolute, e.g. completeness, stillness, equality, permanence, and peacefulness. Life, as a dynamic process, is about playing. However, through true playing, we can also experiences our source, which is the original absolute. If we call play “plus”, then that source of absolute (completeness, stillness, equality, and peacefulness) is the “minus”, which we usually call “love”. We human beings can sense and get awed by the interplay of plus and minus, which we usually call “beauty”. So beauty is the child of play (plus) and love (minus). By being able to sense Play, Love, and Beauty, recognizing them as the peaceful life forces driving the development of life and thus consciously using them as the drives for our own lives, we can go beyond our biological instinct drives, namely survival and reproduction. We can also take such a perspective on human history to view its progress as increasingly being driven by the peaceful force of pursuing fun(play), love and beauty, and to view human history as a history of building a better playground.

So one’s life is about feeling and exploring life centers. In our terms, “life center” is equally the same as “space”. So you can also say one’s life is about feeling and exploring space. Through such feeling and exploring of space, we develop our sense of play, love and beauty. This we can call “art”. So human life is to engage in arts. If we can take this perspective, all our life activities can be coherent, and all our experiences can be put together. Whether you are interested in software programming, management, product design, or playing soccer, they are all arts of playing with life centers, and thus arts of space.

Thus in this interplay of plus and minus, we need to develop our consciousness about ownership and wholeness, and seeing them as a dynamic flowing process of plus and minus interplay, know where one is at a moment. We also need to understand when we know and when we don’t know, and how learning is a process to march from not knowing to knowing. e.g. from one foundation of unification of plus and minus to another foundation of unification of plus and minus, or from one foundation of absolute to another foundation of absolute. From life center perspective, we can also understand perfectly how the learning inside one person is the same as learning in an organization.

If we think humans are with intentions and goals, we can make it our goal to increase degree of life of the whole. Degree of life can be applied to evaluate and compare which systems have more lives. For example, maybe the Python programming language has more life than Java?

As each of us is only a tiny fraction of that whole and we are incomplete and limited, there is such desire to be complete again. Thus come learning and no-learning, choice, separate and connect, thinking and no thinking, feeling, focus… For all these, please read of How Life Framework applied to Learning.

The knowledge about Theory of Life Framework is built up based on my Significant Experiences using Knowledge Engine. For another example of how Knowledge Engine is used for building up knowledge, you can see my summary of my soccer/football experiences.

So above is roughly the content of Life Framework. I composed the article to include various structured knowledge from the Selflearning platform of OSL. I understand it can be very abstract and dry for people first reading it since I went straight to the topics. Below let me add a bit more context to ease the reading. But before that I want to add that you are supposed to click open those links to read them as the content from those links provide a lot more details. Some of them are raw experiences and not refined and polished as you would read in an essay. However, they represent the original Significant Experiences and it is unique of our Selflearning platform to allow people digging into raw experiences. OK, below is some context or background.

For those unfamiliar with Christopher Alexander, if you are programmers you should know design patterns. Design patterns are directly inspired by CA’s Pattern Languages. Even Object Oriented Programming was inspired by CA’s pattern language, although CA personally feel the software world didn’t truly understand his ideas and didn’t use the concept well.

I feel CA moved away from patterns to life centers in his books The Nature of Order. The reason? Maybe I can use Bruce Lee’s words to explain it.

Although Life Framework is just preliminary, I don’t wait to publish it. It is a very lonely process to ride alone, and thus it is good to get some early feedback. Furthermore, our world is moving much faster and more serious dangers looming around. So I feel it is better to share early and share more.

Posted in Scientific Study, selflearning | Leave a comment



Posted in Usage Demo | Leave a comment

Selflearning Frameworks

Here we want to propose to self-directed learning communities to name the new educational frameworks Self-Directed Learning (SDL) frameworks. We realize that there can be many such kind of framework, one example being Free Progress Education. Different from Self-Directed Education (SDE), which confines itself to children only, SDL frameworks are for people of all ages so you can use it to guide your building of universities, free schools or kindergartens, or learning centers for all ages including seniors. And Open Source Learning (OSL) aims to support open source software infrastructure for SDL frameworks.

As with software design, many experienced software programmers admit that the most difficult thing in software design is naming. So we propose this name Self-Directed Learning (SDL) frameworks for the communities to consider. Further, we recommend making it shorter as selflearning frameworks, just like how the words “email” or “open source” are used today. If you agree with Donald Knuth, “Think of how many keystrokes you will save in your lifetime if you stop (stop using e-mail and start using email) now!”

p.s. I have proposed to ASDE to consider adopting a more general framework that includes adults as well.

Posted in Speeches | Leave a comment

Server restart today-2018-01-06

The hosting server is restarted by the hosting platform (webfaction) today. I received their email, but didn’t notice the date was today. Now all sites of OSL are restored. So we are sorry for this and also applause webfaction for such swift action after the security loophole broke out. Below is their email notice for your reference:

Dear WebFaction customer,

Researchers disclosed a security vulnerability affecting side-channel analysis
of speculative execution on modern computer processors (CVE-2017-5715,
CVE-2017-5753, and CVE-2017-5754). This issue affects home computers, phones,
tablets and servers. As such, nearly everyone who uses such a device is
affected. Our team is working on mitigating this, but we will have to reboot
every machine shortly in order to protect your data.


We need to reboot every machine in our fleet at non-business hours over the
next few days to patch this vulnerability. Your emergency maintance window is:
January 6th between 03:00 and 05:00 UTC

Please also see the statusblog for updates:

CPU Vulnerabilities: Meltdown & Spectre

We apologize in advance for the inconvenience. Should you have any questions
about this maintenance, feel free to reply to this email and our support team
will be happy to help.


The WebFaction Team

WebFaction – Smarter web hosting

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

2017 Yearly Summary of Learning


As now is right the New Year Eve. Seeing many friends sharing their summaries of 2017 reminds me of doing the same. However, usually I treat the end of the solar calendar year as the beginning of the summary process and try to allocate some time to keep doing it until the end of the lunar calendar year. So here is the start of that summary process.

So first this is the stat of my learning in 2017:

At the top section, the Top 100 tags are the most used tags in my personal notebook for all the years. So with a glimpse, you pretty much can see areas I have been mostly working on.

Leon’s learning stat for 2017

The second section is my learning for the past 5 years. The data is listed as a table to compare each year so you can see the number of each type of notes made for that year. And you can also see the sum of self-ranked importance for each type of notes and the mean value. One interesting thing you might notice that the numbers have some consistence over years. For example, each type of notes roughly has the same magnitude of number across different years, and snippets always have the highest number of notes and the highest value of importance. That is understandable since snippet is the major type of notes used to capture Significant Experiences. Comparing the data across different years can give a big picture of that year’s learning and focus.

Top 20 tags for each year and new tags for each year offer allow you to understand each year’s learning through the tags perspective.

So the learning statistic page gives you a quick summary of this year’s learning and you can compare and see how this year has differed from previous years. The statistic page is still in the early experimental stage. We shall see what more can be added there. Do you have any suggestions? What do you want to see?

So after this quick review, more work is needed to summarize this year’s learning. For example, you can only view this year(2017)’s notes, and order them by importance. By viewing the most important ones, you can get a quick review of this year’s important learning. And you can also follow some existing workflow to work on your notes of this year by simple editing operations. In the following days and weeks, as I progress in the summary process, I hope to write more of how these can be done. I have written once some of this process before. But this time using the notebook I want to demonstrate this process dynamically online and hopefully make them into a pattern of workflows that can be shared.

Posted in Usage Demo | Leave a comment

How to collaborate and contribute with the learning group

Here is a demo usage of how the Knowledge Engine can be used to allow exploratory and collaborative learning for a group.

Recently responding to a post of SDE forum, I did a quick compiling of SDE’s resources based on alternativestoschool

So here you can view Democratic Schools:

And here for Learning Co-ops:

What I did:
I set up a group named Self-Directed Education, and all resources collected with the official tags of the group (currently: sde, Democratic Schools, Learning Co-ops) by its members are pushed directly to this group. Then these resources can be viewed through tags or queries like above.
As this screenshot shows, you can view by official tags, or other related tags. Search function is provided. So it is easy to search resources within a location, for example.

Posted in Usage Demo | Leave a comment



I remember Mimsy Sadofsky, one of the founders of Sudbury Valley School(SVS) once told vividly how she felt “conversation” as one major characteristic that made SVS different from other schools. From her telling, conversations are everywhere in SVS, and they happen on different levels in various ways. I had the fortune to listen in those conversations during my visit to SVS (SVS has even a special room just for conversations. There is a big table at the center, and people interested in having conversations with others can come to this room. And you can also see that at SVS, conversations are happening all the time at various places. People are constantly having exchange of ideas and feelings.) The topics of these conversations are quite diverse covering a very wide range, and quite spontaneous in nature as well. The students at SVS are pretty good at conversing, such as expressing their personal experiences when talking about things like various kinds of coffee or cheese, or provide analysis from multiple perspectives when discussing political topics such as funding for the presidential election. From my observation, I feel these students’ skills in conversations are at lease equal to average college students in US. Peter Gray, the famed psychology professor and advocate of Sudbury Model and Self-Directed Education, has summarized this very nicely:

“Much of the students’ exploration at the school, especially that of the adolescents, takes place through conversations. Students talk about everything imaginable, with each other and with staff members, and through such talk they are exposed to a huge range of ideas and arguments. Because nobody is an official authority, everything that is said and heard in conversation is understood as something to think about, not as dogma to memorize or feed back on a test. Conversation, unlike memorizing material for a test, stimulates the intellect. The great Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky argued, long ago, that conversation is the foundation for higher thought; and my observations of students at Sudbury Valley convince me that he was right. Thought is internalized conversation; external conversation, with other people, gets it started.”


Grace Llewellyn, the founder of Not Back to School Camp, manifested very well her understanding on equal conversations with children when answering questions during her AMA session on the forum.(

For example, regarding kids’ game playing:

“I love your idea of honest conversation and I would encourage going into that with lots of depth and nuance. Share your concerns and thoughts, identify the ones you think may be more reactive than wise, ask his perspective — really draw him out (he may have his own inner conversation going on, with multiple perspectives), together create some kind of initial agreement that everyone can live with; pay attention; make it an ongoing conversation and adjust the agreement as needed.”

“being around others who are using this process may inspire your son to bring more attention to his own choices. That doesn’t mean he’ll necessarily make different choices than he is now, but simply by interacting consciously with intention itself, he’ll grow in self-awareness. Ultimately, this will help him increasingly shape his actions around what he most values.”

“The way we articulate our hopes for our future selves (“goals”), the choices we make moment to moment, and the evolving relationship between these two parts of our lives — this stuff is just huge. It’s at the core of self-directed learning, and at the core of crafting a satisfying adult life. As long as a person engages it consciously, this relationship does evolve.”

“In some families, there are deeper issues in the way that must be resolved before such conversations can take place. Trust may need to deepen before everyone (especially but not only the kids) knows they can freely and fully share their perspectives without being shut down.”

Just from these quoted above, I think you can have a taste of Grace Llewellyn
‘s deep understanding on equal conversation. I think you can find such understanding in her books, her websites and projects too, and it would be a great learning if you dive into them. No wonder she is able to lead such an invigorating and inspiring unschooling movement.

Just as Grace Llewellyn said, equal conversation is at the heart of Self-Directed Education, and it is the basic learning skill one should possess. From my understanding, one of the magical power of book reading is to cultivate the reader’s skills in equal conversation because reading is to engage conversations with the authors as the authors express their life experiences. Reading many different books is like have conversations with different authors life experiences.

Life comes from diversity. Having equal conversations is to take in nutritions from various lives, which is what we call learning or growth of one’s life.

Many of us studied for many years in conventional schools, and have never learned habit of reading or skills of equal conversation, which is the most basic learning skill. What else can testify more of the failure of this old school system? If you want to know what is real education, we have the Self-Directed Education for you to contemplate with. Take a look at how the SDE children are learning might be an inspiring experience for you.

Posted in selflearning | Leave a comment

Volunteers needed

Open Source Learning has applied to be the local group of ASDE. We need a couple of volunteers to help this effort. You can be at any city of China serving needs of people of your city. If you are interested and want to volunteer, please let me know: sys @ or leave a comment.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Roadmap to future education


Here we want to share a simplified version of our vision of the roadmap to future education. We hope to use this vision to guide activities of Open Source Learning, and to bring along efforts in this direction.

It is our vision that the future education is Self-Learning.

Recently Alliance for Self-Directed Education (ASDE) was formed to promote Self-Directed Education. For decades, there have been two distinctive movements in the states and around the world. One is unschooling movement, and the other is democratic schools or free schools movement. Unschooling movement, as in US, often takes the form of homeschooling due to the regulation requirements, so unschooling families have to register as homeschooling. However, unschooling is dramatically different from homeschooling in term of its learning methodologies. For example, there is no curriculum, and if you are familiar with Sudbury Valley School(SVS) many of unschooling’s practices are very similar to those of SVS . Democratic schools, represented by Sudbury Valley School (SVS), and free schools, represented by Summerhill, although have different emphasis where they started (democracy vs. freedom), the resulting educational/learning methodologies and practices are quite the same, so are that of unschooling communites. From what they shared on social media such as facebook or twitter, if you have been reading for a while you can easily see that what they are talking about overlap with each other a lot, and you can easily identify a list of central ideas, practices and methodologies that have been repeated over and over again in these communities. However, outside these communities, such ideas, practices and methodologies are rarely known. So that is why ASDE is created to summarize all these ideas, practices and methodologies and label them as Self-Directed Education (SDE), and put it on the map for the mainstream to learn about. SDE is a mature set of practices and methodologies. These SDE communities have been around for decades, and they already have several generations of graduates. And there are already a lot of published materials about them. People ought to know them to see if SDE can be a valid option for themselves. To me, I feel this effort is to really bring about the true face of learning to people. We heard such twisted terms such as “Informal Learning”, “Flipped Classroom”, and etc., but really the conventional classroom based teaching is what is flipped and self-learning is the real learning and the formal learning. Another relatively new but quite popular recent phenomena is learning centers. There are two major groups of learning centers, one is North Star Learning Centers, the other is Agile Learning Centers. Each has about 10 to 20 centers. They are also part of ASDE and share the same philosophies of SDE. Democratic/free schools and learning centers have physical space so the way they organize around learning is a bit different from that of unschooling. But unschooling also has the national or even global support and resources. For example, Not Back To School Camp led by Grace Llewellyn, Grow Without School(GWS) magazine run by John Holt and his legacy inheritor Pat Farenga, and filed trip programs run by Blake Boles, and so on. (The people mentioned above are all involved with ASDE). Unschooling families often have to make efforts to find local communities, but there is also online forum to help with that, and ASDE also intends to address that. I am not going to go into more details of how these groups communities differ and also I will skip listing the central ideas and practices of SDE here.

So we believe what ASDE is doing (advocate of SDE and putting it on the map) is the right step we need to take in our march toward future education. As these communities are becoming more mature, and decades of practices have produced generations of graduates and lot of self-published content, it is time to unite all the efforts from various communities and brand them with a name and introduce it to the general public. However, we also feel that maybe we can take a bigger step. ASDE intentionally confines/focuses SDE for children. However, we know that the education/learning methodologies in the universities are fundamentally the same as the primary/secondary/middle schools. And graduates from those SDE communities have no other outlets to go if they want to pursue further education and they all have to somehow “adapt” to the old education/learning methodologies that are used in current universities or higher education institutions. Such “adaption” is usually just a short period of time, and since the graduates from these communities have learned self-learning skills, they usually find it easy to overcome such an adaption period. However, there is still a phase of adaption period. So we at OSL think that why not just take a bigger step? We can just come up with a new education/learning framework that can replace the old education framework, which has only 150 years of history and whose creation is to serve the mass production based economy at the time. Today around the world in different countries, even the education can be very different in different countries and in different types of schools, they are fundamentally based on the same education framework, e.g. the class based educational framework. With just 150 years of history, this old educational framework has already deeply influenced how people think of education, so people in our modern times cannot think of education/learning without the concept of class. This is even true for many people who are supposed to innovate in education field with internet. So it is easy to understand why so many elearning or online learning sites are still based on classes (oh yeah, MOOC). And we know Sudbury has no class, and it can operate at a cost cheaper than public schools in the same neighborhood, and they have been doing so for 50 years. So it is time to have a new educational framework to replace the old one. Free Progress Education (FPE), outlined by Marco (who I got to know from ASDE commnunity) has outlined such a framework for us (I would strongly recommend you read it since it is well framed). FPE rightly pointed out that what we need is a new general education/learning framework that is very different from the old one, and we have to apply such framework to both child education and adult education. In addition to the common practices and methodologies in SDE, Marco added a few things to be essential of such a new framework, which we here at OSL agree and share deeply (evident from our past essays and speeches, which you can read on this site). Such things include: emphasis on self-reflection and understanding; anyone can be teachers; portfolios and new ways of evaluation; the need of infrastructure, both physically and also in term of software (For details of what these mean, please read of them on FPE). We think this is a more general framework than SDE to replace the old framework in child education and adult education. This framework can be further enriched or made more detailed. Things like software infrastructure also need to be built up to support it.

So we do feel that we should be able to take such a bigger step. What we want to do for child education can also be built under the same education framework, so we can accumulate our experiences and iterate through our experiments. It is time for us to replace the old education/learning framework with the new framework in our internet age. This new framework is essentially a framework of self-learning. The software built by Open Source Learning(OSL) can be part of the software infrastructure for this new framework (many other kinds of software are still needed), since OSL’s software is designed from the beginning to overcome these difficulties and to support such a self-learning future. We also hope our software can be inspiration for other software programmers who share the same vision, and contribute software for this direction. From software perspectives, since learning is essentially activities of consciousness, the kind of software is consciousness software. Knowledge Engine is the engine for consciousness software. It transforms Significant Experiences into knowledge, which we believe can be the base of all consciousness software. And we believe there will be a flourishing of consciousness software in the near future.

So this is what we understand as the roadmap to future education. The mature practices and content from current SDE communities make the time ready to propose such a new educational framework, and put this new framework into practice and enrich and refine it along the process, and expand the self-directed learning communities. The software supporting self-directed learning can truly be put into good use and push self-directed learning to the mainstream people, and thus to transform education fundamentally.

We offer this proposal here for you to contemplate with. We hope more forces can recognize this and participate in refining, enriching and applying this new framework.

So Self-Learning is the future education. Let’s make self-learning easier and bring out the true face of learning!

Update: we propose Self-Directed Learning frameworks as the set of new learning frameworks that we can use to replace the old classroom based education framework. And work is underway to define what major features should the Self-Directed Learning frameworks have.

Please refer the previous two articles to learn more about ASDE and FPE.

Introduction to Free Progress Education

Alliance for Self-Directed Education

Posted in selflearning | 2 Comments







1971 中国互联网历史上光辉灿烂的一年


1962 香港娱乐圈光辉灿烂的一年











1977 郭玉闪 孙继海
1976 黄章(魅族) 柴静 许知远 刘国梁 李湘 夏雨 张效瑞 翁帆
梁咏琪 舒淇
王力宏 林心如
吴恩达 罗纳尔多

1975 龚琳娜

1974 徐静蕾 李健

1972 罗永浩

1971 丁磊 马化腾

1970 贾樟柯

1969 窦唯 王菲 高晓松 雷军

1968 张楚 李彦宏


1964 马云 张朝阳

1963 李宁 姜文

1962 史玉柱 刘亮程 丁武(唐朝乐队)饶毅 俞敏洪 唐骏 董文华
梁朝伟 周星驰 黃家駒

1961 刘军宁 崔健 陈冲 宋丹丹
张学友 黃日華 刘德华 黄秋生 林夕 叶倩文

1960 贺卫方 方滨兴 郎平 徐小平
周华健 齊秦

1959 张维迎 冯仑 古广明
翁美玲 林奕華(香港)

1958 朱永新 许家印 冯小刚 严歌苓 杨丽萍 李扬(配音)
陈百强 梁家辉 苗侨伟 王家卫
陳文茜 姜育恒 李宗盛

1957 顾长卫 艾未未 巩汉林 赵本山 朱淼华
齐豫 李子恒

1956 顾城
张国荣 张明敏

1955 刘晓波 陈道明 刘晓庆 张海迪
周润发 王晶 费玉清

1954 高华 孙大午 董明珠
成龙 赵雅芝
李安 赖声川 林青霞

1953 胡舒立 艾晓明 韩三平 陈丹青 汪丁丁 许小年 薛蛮子 习近平 刘志军
邓丽君 胡因梦 林清玄

1952 王小波 李银河 林达 林毅夫 聂卫平 陈凯歌 朱学勤 贾平凹 鄢烈山 唐国强
刘镇伟 吴孟达 洪金宝
龙应台 李立群 苏芮

1951 王石 任志强 严援朝 张纪中 孙正平 史铁生

1950 张艺谋 姜昆 邓榕
郭台铭 陈水扁 马英九

1949 丘成桐 北岛 路遥 牛群 石富宽 薄熙来 胡万林

1948 刘永行 周小川 王刚 侯耀文
许冠杰 黄元申
蔡志忠 张小燕

1947 易中天

1946 朱清时 余秋雨 侯耀华 陈小鲁 黄华华 陈良宇
克林顿 川普

1945 宗庆后 庞中华

1944 倪润峰 戚务生 徐根宝 李长江 李谷一
刘丹 彭定康

三毛 席慕蓉

1942 陈忠实 刘心武 章诒和 遇罗克 赵忠祥 胡锦涛 温家宝
董桥 许冠文
斯蒂芬霍金 拳王阿里

1941 刘再复 田连元 牟其中 毛远新

1940 高行健 叶永烈 李纳

1939 钱理群 袁伟民

1938 唐家璇

1937 严顺开 古月
容国团 董建华
釋證嚴 白先勇

1936 林兆华

1935 高尔泰 王洪文

1934 傅聪 王蒙 苏永舜 马季

1933 陈景润 年维泗
渡边淳一 藤子·F·不二雄
1932 梁从诫 刘胡兰 蒋彦永

1931 袁伟时 流沙河 黄继光 罗盛教 朱厚泽 姚文元 戚本禹

1930 李泽厚 厉以宁 袁隆平 屠呦呦 资中筠 严凤英 张志新 禹作敏 陈希同 朱森林
許倬雲 余英时

1929 茅于轼 周海婴 梁再冰 杜致礼 董存瑞 曾雪麟 胡启立 丁关根

1928 褚时健 赵丽蓉 钱其琛 朱镕基
手塚治虫 池田大作
1927 何祚庥 高耀洁 李文华 释一诚

1926 李振道 江泽民

1925 黄胄 刘宾雁

1924 邓稼先 黃永玉 六龄童 乔石 叶选平
金庸 梁羽生

1923 李慎之 毛岸青 王进喜

1922 杨振宁 毛岸英

1921 赵无极 华国锋

1920 张爱玲
唐德刚 王安(王安电脑)

1919 吳冠中 赵紫阳

1918 穆旦
南怀瑾 黄仁宇

1917 侯宝林 张春桥

1916 汪东兴

1915 于光遠 卢嘉锡 时传祥 邓力群 胡耀邦

1914 吴清源 马三立 谢添 徐迟 杨成武

1913 钱三强 王洛宾 孙犁 习仲勋

1912 钱伟长 吴健雄 袁家騮 邓拓

1911 陈省身 钱学森 黄万里 杨绛 季羡林 萧红

1910 费孝通 曹禺 錢鍾書 萧乾 南海十三郎 贺子珍 蒋经国 张爱萍

1909 谈家桢 吴晗 范长江 刘长春 李先念

1908 傅雷 陶铸 周立波

1907 王淦昌 释本焕 趙樸初 李可染 川島芳子 杨尚昆 林彪

1906 李健吾 周有光 王实味 陆定一 胡兰成 释印顺 溥仪

1905 李惠堂 冼星海 师哲 赵一曼 陈云

1904 林徽因 郭廷以 程砚秋 傅抱石 丁玲 任弼时 邓小平 婉容

1903 梁实秋 陆小曼 楼适夷 陈赓

1902 顾毓琇 苏步青 周培源 沈从文 柔石 還珠樓主 胡风 释海灯(海灯法师) 彭真 罗荣桓

1901 严济慈 梁思成 俞大绂 邓恩铭 陈毅 张学良 杨开慧 徐向前

1900 林风眠 万籁鸣 万古蟾 冰心 夏衍 小鳳仙 张闻天

1899 潘光旦 老舍 黃宗霑 李苦禅 张大千 聂荣臻

1898 叶启孙 丰子恺 朱自清 翦伯赞 刘少奇 周恩来 彭德怀 康生

1897 吴有训 朱光潜 章乃器 潘天寿 雷震 羅家倫 叶剑英 宋美龄

1896 徐志摩 矛盾 郁達夫 傅斯年 刘海粟 贺龙 澎湃

1895 徐悲鸿 金岳霖 冯友兰 林语堂 钱穆 张恨水 章伯钧 吉鸿昌 傅作义

1894 梅兰芳 叶圣陶 邓中夏 宋子文

1893 熊庆来 晏阳初 梁漱溟 顾颉刚 宋庆龄 毛泽东 白崇禧

1892 郭沫若 刘伯承

1891 饒毓泰 胡適 刘半农 李宗仁 孙科

1890 陈寅恪 竺可桢 释太虚

1889 李四光 李大钊 张奚若 袁克文 宋霭龄 孙殿英

1888 周建人 盖叫天

1887 钱玄同 林觉民 柳亚子 钱基博 蒋中正

1886 蒋梦麟 邵飘萍 朱德

1885 周作人 熊十力 鄒容 李济深

1884 苏曼殊 谢觉哉

1883 馬一浮 汪精卫 郭松龄

1882 钱家治 蔣百里 蔡锷 宋教仁

1881 鲁迅 章士釗

1880 李叔同 陈垣

1879 陈独秀 李宗吾(厚黑学)

1878 黄炎培 何香凝 吴玉章

1877 王国维 廖仲恺 徐特立

1876 張伯苓 陈师曾 陈师曾(衡恪) 林长民 何叔衡

1875 陈天华 秋瑾 杨度 张作霖

1874 陈嘉庚 黄兴 吴佩孚

1873 梁启超


1871 杨昌济 光绪

1870 熊希齡

1869 章太炎
1868 蔡元培 霍元甲 黄金荣


1866 孙中山

1865 谭嗣同

1864 齐白石


1862 释印光

1861 詹天佑



1858 康有为

1853 陈三立

1848 黄遵宪

1844 吴昌硕

1937 张之洞


1831 陈宝箴

1823 李鸿章

1812 左宗棠

1811 曾国藩

1472 王阳明

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment